PARIS—European governments are getting ready to unlock the continent’s financial system by introducing policies and recommendations that amount to a sweeping reconfiguration of day to day daily life, from subway seating to classroom measurement.

Governments from Paris to Madrid are navigating a minefield as they search for strategies to revive their economies with no triggering a surge in infections. The reopening will be gradual, stretching into the summer, and remarkably qualified to initially reward locations with fewer infections, European officials say.